Functions in Python

✓ Function – It is used to perform sequence of statements.

✓ Type Conversion Functions – Python’s built-in functions are used to convert values from one type to another.

>>> int('32')
32
>>> int('Hello')
ValueError: invalid literal for int(): Hello
>>> int(3.99999)
3
>>> int(-2.3)
-2
>>> float(32)
32.0
>>> float('3.14159')
3.14159
>>> str(32)
'32'
>>> str(3.14159)
'3.14159'

✓ Math Functions – Python’s math module is used to perform most of the familiar mathematical functions.

>>> import math
>>> print math
<module 'math' (built-in)>

>>> ratio = signal_power / noise_power
>>> decibels = 10 * math.log10(ratio)
>>> radians = 0.7
>>> height = math.sin(radians)

#Composition
x = math.sin(degrees / 360.0 * 2 * math.pi)
x = math.exp(math.log(x+1))

✓ Creating new functions

def print_lyrics():
    print "I'm a lumberjack, and I'm okay."
    print "I sleep all night and I work all day."

def repeat_lyrics():
    print_lyrics()
    print_lyrics()

repeat_lyrics()

✓ Functions with parameters and arguments

def print_twice(bruce):
    print bruce
    print bruce

>>> print_twice('Spam')
Spam
Spam
>>> print_twice(17)
17
17
>>> print_twice(math.pi)
3.14159265359
3.14159265359

✓ Value returning functions and void functions

# Value returning fucntions
x = math.cos(radians)
golden = (math.sqrt(5) + 1) / 2

#Void functions
>>> result = print_twice('Bing')
Bing
Bing

✶ Functions can make a program smaller by eliminating repetitive code. Later, if you make a change, you only have to make it in one place.
✶ Dividing a long program into functions allows you to debug the parts one at a time and then assemble them into a working whole.
✶ Well-designed functions are often useful for many programs. Once you write and
debug one, you can reuse it.

✓ Importing functions

#If you import math, you get a module object named math.
>>> import math
>>> print math
<module 'math' (built-in)>
>>> print math.pi
3.14159265359

>>> print pi
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "", line 1, in 
NameError: name 'pi' is not defined

# Importing objects from module
>>> from math import pi
>>> print pi
3.14159265359

#you can use the star operator to import everything from the module
>>> from math import *
>>> cos(pi)
-1.0
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